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White paper: Battery recycling essentials

Global volumes of battery scrap grew 56% last year. At the same time the demand of cells is quickly surpassing global mining production. Extracting the maximum value from recycled cells could help bridge this growing gap between supply and demand.

It is clear that there is a growing shortage of cells, and as electrification picks up further speed, this shortage will be accentuated.

‘Alelion’s approach, built on 15 years of battery knowledge, focuses on optimising recovery and purity of these materials, reducing reliance on virgin resources, and promoting sustainable battery production,’ said Sandra Hansson, director aftermarket business development and circular economy.

Several techniques for battery recycling exist, and many more are under development. Heat, water, mechanical or biotechnological, they all depend greatly on the disassembly process and rate of contamination of materials.

‘By staying abreast of these technological advances, Alelion ensures that our battery systems are designed with the future of recycling in mind. We also provide a platform for recyclability planning with industry partners,’ said Sandra Hansson.

Battery recycling has two valuable products: pure metals like aluminium and copper, and ‘black mass’.

Black mass is a black powder consisting of a mix of precious metals like manganese, cobalt, and lithium. The quality of black mass, used in new cell production, hinges on the assembly of cells and modules, with design for recycling being critical.

Data analysis plays a crucial role in the recycling process. Alelion’s competence centre and lab provides essential data and insights into cell lifecycles.

Collecting and analysing battery system data allows Alelion to maximise battery use, determine total cost of ownership, guide recycling efforts and ensure optimal resource utilisation.

Alelion is an established developer, manufacturer, and supplier of advanced battery systems for off highway vehicles in several segments. The company shares its key learnings in a series of white papers, this being the fourth issued in 2023.

All white papers can be found on


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